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MA?a la??nh – Cao A�ia�?m ba��nh tiA?u cha??y a�Y tra?� em

TiA?u cha??y ga?�p a�Y ma�?i la��a tua��i nh?�ng khi tra?� em ma??c tiA?u cha??y thA� ca?�n ha??t sa��c l?�u A? vA� cA? tha�? bia??n cha��ng xa??y ra ba??t ca�� lA?c nA�o vA� cA? tha�? gA?y ta�� vong.

Theo tha��ng kA? thA� tiA?u cha??y lA� ma��t trong nha�?ng ba��nh chia??m ta�� la�� ta�� vong cao nha??t a�Y tra?� em Via��t Nam hia��n nay.

NguyA?n nhA?n gA?y tiA?u cha??y a�Y tra?�

TiA?u cha??y lA� nguyA?n nhA?n hA�ng A�a?�u gA?y ba��nh ta?�t vA� ta�� vong cho tra?� em cA?c n?�a��c A�ang phA?t tria�?n. a�z tra?� d?�a��i 3 tua��i thA� trung bA�nh ma��i nA?m cA? tha�? ba�� ma??c 1-3 A�a�?t ba��nh tiA?u cha??y. Theo Ta�� cha��c Y ta?? Tha?? gia��i (WHO), hA�ng nA?m ?�a��c tA�nh cA? ta��i 1,3 ta�� l?�a�?t tra?� em d?�a��i 5 tua��i ma??c tiA?u cha??y vA� 4 tria��u tra?� cha??t vA� ba��nh nA�y. Khi ma��t tra?� A�i A�a??i tia��n nhia�?u la?�n (trA?n 3 la?�n/ngA�y trong vA?ng 24 gia�?), phA?n loA?ng vA� nhia�?u n?�a��c thA� A�?�a�?c ga�?i lA� tra?� ba�� tiA?u cha??y. Ba��nh tiA?u cha??y ca??p th?�a�?ng dia��n ra d?�a��i 5 ngA�y, na??u tiA?u cha??y kA�o dA�i trA?n 2 tua?�n lA� tiA?u cha??y kA�o dA�i. Tra?� ba�� tiA?u cha??y cA? tha�? do nhia�?u nguyA?n nhA?n khA?c nhau, nh?�ng th?�a�?ng ga?�p nha??t lA� do A�?�a�?ng rua��t tra?� ba�� nhia��m virut, vi khua?�n hoa?�c kA? sinh trA?ng.

Theo tha��ng kA? ca��a WHO thA� cA? sa�� khA?c bia��t theo mA?a a�Y nhia�?u vA?ng khA?c nhau. a�z nha�?ng vA?ng A?n A�a��i, tiA?u cha??y do vi khua?�n th?�a�?ng xa??y ra vA�o mA?a nA?ng; ng?�a�?c la??i, tiA?u cha??y do virut, A�a?�c bia��t lA� Rotavirus la??i xa??y ra cao A�ia�?m vA�o mA?a A�A?ng. a�z nha�?ng vA?ng nhia��t A�a��i, tiA?u cha??y do Rotavirus xa??y ra quanh nA?m nh?�ng tA?ng vA�o cA?c thA?ng khA? vA� la??nh; ng?�a�?c la??i, tiA?u cha??y do vi khua?�n la??i cao A�ia�?m vA�o mA?a m?�a vA� nA?ng. NgoA�i Rotavirus thA� ma��t sa�� vi khua?�n nh?� E.coli, Campylobacter hoa?�c hia??m ga?�p h??n nh?� Shigella, Salmonella, V. cholerae vA� ma��t sa�� kA? sinh trA?ng nh?� cA?c loa??i giun hoa?�c amip cA�ng gA?y nA?n tiA?u cha??y cho tra?�.

A?a�? xA?c A�a��nh nguyA?n nhA?n gA?y tiA?u cha??y, ngA�y nay, cA?c phA?ng thA� nghia��m vi sinh y ha�?c A�A? cA? A�a�� c?? sa�Y, trang thia??t ba�� vA� sinh va?�t va?�t pha?�m A�a�? tia??n hA�nh xA?c A�a��nh khi cA? tr?�a�?ng ha�?p tiA?u cha??y xa??y ra, nha??t lA� khi cA? nguy c?? thA�nh da��ch ba��nh.A� NgoA�i ra, tra?� ba�� tiA?u cha??y cA? tha�? do da�� a��ng va��i tha��c A?n, khA?ng dung na??p tha��c A?n (tha��c A?n khA?ng thA�ch ha�?p va��i A�?�a�?ng tiA?u hA?a ca��a tra?�), cha?? A�a�� A?n khA?ng phA? ha�?p va��i la��a tua��i hoa?�c ga?�p a�Y ma��t sa�� tra?� do sa�� da�?ng khA?ng sinh kA�o dA�i A�a�? A�ia�?u tra�� ma��t ba��nh nhia��m khua?�n nA�o A�A? hoa?�c do ng?�a�?i la��n dA?ng sai cha�� A�a��nh ca��a bA?c sA� khA?m ba��nh cho tra?�a��Nha�?ng ta?�p quA?n lA�m tA?ng nguy c?? tiA?u cha??y nh?�: khA?ng nuA?i con hoA�n toA�n ba?�ng sa�?a ma?? trong 4 – 6 thA?ng A�a?�u hoa?�c cA? ta?�p quA?n cai sa�?a tr?�a��c 1 tua��i hoa?�c cA? tha�? ga?�p a�Y tra?� bA? bA�nh (do bA�nh khA?ng vA? khua?�n), dA?ng n?�a��c ua��ng A�A? ba�� nhia��m cA?c vi khua?�n A�?�a�?ng rua��t. KhA?ng ra��a tay sau khi A�i ngoA�i, sau khi da�?n phA?n hoa?�c tr?�a��c khi chua?�n ba�� tha��c A?n, hoa?�c khA?ng xa�� lA? phA?n ma��t cA?ch ha�?p va�� sinh (A�a?�c bia��t lA� phA?n tra?� nha�?) cA�ng lA� nha�?ng ya??u ta�� thua?�n la�?i gA?y tiA?u cha??y a�Y tra?�. CA�ng cA? tha�? ga?�p tiA?u cha??y a�Y tra?� cA?i x?�??ng, suy dinh d?�a�?ng, tra?� ma??c ba��nh AIDS do ba�� suy gia??m mia��n da��ch khA?ng cA? kha?? nA?ng cha��ng A�a�? va��i tA?c nhA?n gA?y ba��nh.
TiA?u cha??y cA? nguy hia�?m?

ThA?ng th?�a�?ng, ng?�a�?i ta da��a vA�o tA�nh cha??t ca��a tiA?u cha??y A�a�? phA?n loa??i thA�nh tiA?u cha??y ca??p tA�nh vA� tiA?u cha??y ma??n tA�nh (tiA?u cha??y kA�o dA�i). TiA?u cha??y ca??p tA�nh xua??t hia��n phA?n la�?ng ca??p tA�nh gA?y ma??t n?�a��c, cha??t A�ia��n gia??i ma��t cA?ch da��n da?�p cho nA?n tra?� da�� ba�� tra�?y tim ma??ch, nhia��m A�a��c A�a��c ta�� vA� cA? tha�? ta�� vong na??u ca??p ca��u khA?ng ka��p tha�?i hoa?�c ca??p ca��u mua��n.

Na??u tiA?u cha??y cA? kA?m theo ra mA?u, mA?u hA?a la?�n va��i phA?n ta??o nA?n phA?n cA? mA�u nh?� mA?u cA? th?�a�?ng do vi khua?�n la�� (Shigella) vA� A�?�a�?c ga�?i lA� ha��i cha��ng la��. Va��i tha�? nA�y, tra?� cA�ng ra??t da�� ba�� ma??t n?�a��c vA� cha??t A�ia��n gia??i ca??p tA�nh, kA?m theo nhia��m A�a��c A�a��c ta�� ca��a vi khua?�n la��, ba��nh nhi cA? tha�? tra�Y nA?n nguy ka��ch na??u khA?ng ca??p ca��u ka��p tha�?i thA� tA�nh ma??ng ca��a tra?� cA�ng cA? tha�? ba�� A�e da�?a. Khi ba��nh tiA?u cha??y kha�Yi A�a?�u ca??p tA�nh nh?�ng kA�o dA�i ba??t th?�a�?ng (A�t nha??t lA� 14 ngA�y). Ba??t A�a?�u ma��i A�a�?t cA? tha�? lA� tiA?u cha??y phA?n la�?ng ca??p hoa?�c lA� ha��i cha��ng la��. Ba��nh nhA?n th?�a�?ng ba�� sA?t cA?n rA� ra��t. L?�a�?ng phA?n A�A�o tha??i nhia�?u gA?y nguy c?? ma??t n?�a��c, ra��i loa??n cha??t A�ia��n gia??i. Khi ba�� ma??t n?�a��c, A�ia��n gia??i A�t thA� tra?� qua??y khA?c, va?�t vA? hoa?�c la�? A�a�?, khA?t n?�a��c, n?�a��c tia�?u gia??m kha��i l?�a�?ng, khA?c khA?ng cA? n?�a��c ma??t, ma??t trA�ng, mia��ng khA?, tha�Y nhanh, sA?u h??n bA�nh th?�a�?ng, ma??ch nhanh nha�?, thA?p lA�m, huya??t A?p ta�?t.

Khi tiA?u cha??y kA�o dA�i sa?? lA�m tra?� suy dinh d?�a�?ng vA� cA?c hoa??t A�a��ng ca��a cA?c c?? quan khA?c cA�ng sa?? ba�� ra��i loa??n ma��t cA?ch nghiA?m tra�?ng, A�a?�c bia��t lA� gA?y nhia��m khua?�n huya??t do vi khua?�n vA� cA? tha�? da?�n A�a??n ta�� vong.

PhA?ng tiA?u cha??y cho tra?� nh?� tha?? nA�o?

Khi tra?� xua??t hia��n tiA?u cha??y, nA?n cho tra?� A�i khA?m cA�ng sa��m cA�ng ta��t, trong khi ch?�a tha�? A�?�a tra?� A�i khA?m ba��nh A�?�a�?c thA� nA?n cho tra?� ua��ng nhia�?u n?�a��c h??n bA�nh th?�a�?ng, na??u tra?� cA?n bA?, ca?�n cho bA? nhia�?u vA� lA?u h??n. Ca?�n cho tra?� ua��ng thA?m dung da��ch bA? n?�a��c oresol (ORS) sau ma��i la?�n A�i tiA?u cha??y. Na??u ch?�a cA? sa?�n gA?i ORS, cA? tha�? dA?ng 1 thA�a cA� phA? mua��i (3,5g), 8 thA�a cA� phA? A�?�a�?ng (40g) pha vA�o 1 lA�t n?�a��c cho tra?� ua��ng A�t ma��t trong ngA�y. a�z nha�?ng tra?� cA? nA?n A?i thA� kha?�u pha?�n A?n nA?n A�?�a�?c chia ra lA�m nhia�?u ba�?a nha�?, cho ua��ng ORS vA� A?n la�?ng nhia�?u la?�n trong ngA�y. NgoA�i ORS, tra?� trA?n 6 thA?ng tua��i cA?n cA? tha�? ua��ng n?�a��c sA?p, n?�a��c c??m, n?�a��c chA?o, n?�a��c da��a, n?�a��c hoa qua?? t?�??i khA?ng A�?�a�?ng, n?�a��c chA�n A�a�? ngua��i.

A?a�? phA?ng nga��a vA� gia??m ba��t nguy c?? ma??c ba��nh tiA?u cha??y a�Y tra?� em, cA?c ba?�c pha�? huynh ca?�n chA? A? nuA?i con ba?�ng sa�?a ma?? A�t nha??t trong 6 thA?ng A�a?�u A�a�?i. Khi cho tra?� A?n, ca?�n A�a??m ba??o va�� sinh tha��c pha?�m. Ca?�n ra��a tay cho tra?� tr?�a��c vA� sau khi A?n. Va��i tra?� la��n h??n, ca?�n ta?�p thA?i quen cho tra?� ngoA�i via��c ra��a tay tr?�a��c vA� sau khi A?n, ca?�n cho tra?� bia??t ra��a tay sau khi A�i va�� sinh ba?�ng xA� phA?ng. Ngua��n n?�a��c cho tra?� ra��a tay pha??i lA� n?�a��c khA?ng ba�� nhia��m ba?�n. A?a?�c bia��t, ca?�n cho tra?� tiA?m phA?ng A�a?�y A�a�� cA?c loa??i va??c-xin trong Ch?�??ng trA�nh tiA?m cha��ng ma�Y ra��ng vA� ua��ng va??c-xin nga��a tiA?u cha??y do Rotavirus.

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